Piping (problem soil and rock)

A weak incoherent layer in unconsolidated deposits that acts as a channel directing the movement of water. As the layer becomes saturated it conducts water to a free face (cliff or stream bank for example) that intersects the layer, and material exits out a “pipe” formed in the free face. Piping can occur in a dam as the result of progressive development of internal erosion by seepage.

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